The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer (ARN) is a collaborative update from the National Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. It provides the most recent cancer data on rates of new cases, death rates, and trends for the most common cancers in the United States. This year, the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer has been published in two different parts. Part I of the report shares national rates and trends of different types of cancers, while Part II focuses on prostate cancer.
PART I HIGHLIGHTS
The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, Part I: National Cancer Statistics provides updates on rates of new cases and deaths for different types of cancers. The main conclusions from the report include: the rate of new cases of cancer continued to decrease for men but remained stable among women; significant declines in cancer death rates continue among both men and women; differences in rates and trends by race and ethnic group remain; progress in reducing cancer mortality has not occurred for all sites, with the most notable exceptions being liver cancer and uterus cancer; early cancer detection and treatment are associated with potential benefits; and continued monitoring of national statistics identifies areas for potential intervention and control to reduce the burden of cancer in the U.S. population. Further information about rates of new cases and deaths for different types of cancers are detailed below:
- Figure A shows changes in incidence rates from 2010 through 2014 for common cancers in men and women. During this time frame, seven of the 17 more common cancers in men showed significant decreases in incidence, and seven of the 18 more common cancers in women showed significant decreases in incidence.
- Figure B presents changes in death rates from 2011 through 2015 for common cancers in men and women. During this time frame, 11 of the 18 more common cancers in men showed significant decreases in mortality, and 14 of the 20 more common cancers in women showed significant decreases in mortality.
- Differences in rates and trends by race and ethnic group remain. For example, black men and women had the highest cancer death rates of any racial or ethnic group for all cancer sites combined. Colorectal cancer was more common among Hispanic men and women than lung and bronchus cancer. Among men, melanoma of the skin ranked fifth in whites and nineteenth in blacks, and liver cancer ranked eleventh in whites, sixth in blacks, and fourth in Asian/Pacific Islanders.
- Trends reflect improvements in treatment and early detection. From 1999 to 2015, colorectal cancer mortality rates decreased, reflecting improved early detection and more effective treatments. Additionally, the five-year survival rates between 2007-2013 for stage I of the most common cancers were 100 percent for breast and prostate cancers. It was 99.5 percent for melanoma, 88.1 percent for colorectal cancer, and 55.1 percent for lung cancer.
PART II HIGHLIGHTS
The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, Part II: Recent Changes in Prostate Cancer Trends and Disease Characteristics examines rates of new cases and deaths for prostate cancer. In particular, the report looks at these national trends and their relationship with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening rates, among other factors. The main findings from the report include: there was an increase in the incidence of late-stage disease from 2010 to 2014, a change that chronologically followed new recommendations in the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for PSA-based prostate cancer screening; newly diagnosed patients are less likely to present with low-risk localized disease and are consequently less likely to be eligible for active surveillance; and there was no increase in the incidence of patients with other high-risk characteristics to date. The researchers concluded that these findings illustrate a trend of increasing late-stage disease after decreasing PSA screening at the population level.
Other important findings are listed below:
- The rate of new cases of prostate cancer has declined about 6 percent each year since 2007 for all age groups combined.
- After years of significant decline, the death rate trend for prostate cancer stabilized from 2013 to 2015.
To learn more about the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, visit seer.cancer.gov/report_to_nation/.